# Nuclear Data Program

## NUCLEAR DATA AND MEASUREMENTS REPORTS

### Reports 141-160

**ANL/NDM-141** | Abstract only (26 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (2.16 MB)

**Neutron Scattering and Models: Titanium**

*A.B. Smith*

July 1997

**ANL/NDM-142** | Abstract only (33 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (2.2 MB)

**Neutron Scattering and Models: Molybdenum**

*A.B. Smith*

November 1997

**ANL/NDM-143** | Abstract only (18 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (1.8 MB)

**A Compilation of Information on the ^{32}S(p,g )^{33}Cl Reaction and Properties of Excited Levels in ^{33}Cl**

*Roy E. Miller and Donald L. Smith*

July 1997

**ANL/NDM-144** | Abstract only (34 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (8.91 MB)

**A Compilation of Information on the ^{31}P(p,a )^{28}Si Reaction and Properties of Excited Levels in the Compound Nucleus ^{32}S**

*Roy E. Miller and Donald L. Smith*

November 1997

**ANL/NDM-145** | Abstract only (40 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (4.71 MB)

**A Neutron Spherical Optical-Statistical-Model Code: A User’s Manual**

*R.D. Lawson and A.B. Smith*

June 1999 (Revision I)

The following additional files associated with this report can be downloaded The text files (*.txt) can be viewed with a text editor.

- ABAREX Fortran Source – 98rev (Text) ABAREX-Fortran98rev.txt (515 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 3.1 (Text) ABAREX-Example31.txt (2 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 3.2 (Text) ABAREX-Example32.txt (3 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 3.3 (Text) ABAREX-Example33.txt (5 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 3.4 (Text) ABAREX-Example34.txt (3 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 4.1 (Text) ABAREX-Example41.txt (5 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 4.2 (Text) ABAREX-Example42.txt (5 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 5.1 (Text) ABAREX-Example51.txt (5 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 5.2 (Text) ABAREX-Example52.txt (5 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.1 (Text) ABAREX-Example61.txt (14 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.2 (Text) ABAREX-Example62.txt (23 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.2a (Text) ABAREX-Example62a.txt (37 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.2b (Text) ABAREX-Example62b.txt (20 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.2c (Text) ABAREX-Example62c.txt (23 KB text file)
- ABAREX Example 6.2d (Text) ABAREX-Example62d.txt (20 KB text file)

**ANL/NDM-146** | Abstract only (30 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (6.7 MB)

**Non-Destructive Assay of EBR-II Blanket Elements Using Resonance Transmission Analysis**

*Raymond T. Klann and Wolfgang P. Poenitz*

August 1998

**ANL/NDM-147** | Abstract only (23 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (0.96 MB)

**ELEMENTAL ABAREX --- A User’s Manual**

*A.B. Smith*

June 1999

- ABAREX-EL Fortran Source (Text) ABAREX-EL-Fortran.txt (567 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1 (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1.txt (13 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1a (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1a.txt (13 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1b (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1b.txt (15 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1c (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1c.txt (14 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1d (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1d.txt (26 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1e (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1e.txt (17 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1f (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1f.txt (25 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1g (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1g.txt (8 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 1h (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example1h.txt (33 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 2 (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example2.txt (25 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 2a (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example2a.txt (21 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 3 (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example3.txt (52 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 4 (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example4.txt (40 KB text file)
- ABAREX-EL Example 5 (Text) ABAREX-EL-Example5.txt (53 KB text file)

**ANL/NDM-148** | Abstract only (6 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (4.21 MB)

**A Method to Construct Covariance Files in ENDF/B Format for Criticality Safety Applications**

*Dimitri G. Naberejnev and Donald L. Smith*

June 1999

Argonne National Laboratory is providing support for a criticality
safety analysis project that is being performed at Oak Ridge National
Laboratory. The ANL role is to provide the covariance information needed
by ORNL for this project. The ENDF/B-V evaluation is being used for this
particular criticality analysis. In this evaluation, covariance
information for several isotopes or elements of interest to this
analysis is either not given or needs to be reconsidered. For some
required materials, covariance information does not exist in ENDF/B-V: ^{233}U, ^{236}U, Zr, Mg, Gd, and Hf. For others,
existing covariance information may need to be re-examined in light of
the newer ENDF/B-VI evaluation and recent experimental data. In this
category are the following materials: ^{235}U, ^{238}U, ^{239}Pu, ^{240}Pu, ^{241}Pu, Fe, H, C, N, O,
Al, Si, and B. A reasonable estimation of the fractional errors for
various evaluated neutron cross sections from ENDF/B-V can be based on
the comparisons between the major more recent evaluations including ENDF/B-VI,
JENDL3.2, BROND2.2, and JEF2.2, as well as a careful examination of
experimental data. A reasonable method to construct correlation matrices
is proposed here. Coupling both of these considerations suggests a
method to construct covariances files in ENDF/B format that can be used
to express uncertainties for specific ENDF/B-V cross sections.

KEYWORDS:

Nuclear data evaluation, data uncertainty, correlation matrix,
covariance matrix.

**ANL/NDM-148.memo** | Complete ANL/NDM-148.memo PDF file (65 KB)

**Covariance Files in ENDF/B-V Format for Criticality Safety Applications.**

*Dmitri G. Naberejnev*

July 2000

DE5COV.zip (1.65 MB ZIP file) - ENDF/B-V tapes with calculated covariace files for isotopes/elements listed in ANL/NDM148.memo

DE5COV_GRA.zip (729 KB ZIP file) - graphical representation of correlation matrices and fractional errors for isotopes/elements listed in ANL/NDM148.memo

**ANL/NDM-149** | Abstract only (49.9 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (1.04 MB)

**Neutrons and Antimony : Physical Measurements and Interpretations**

*Alan B. Smith*

July 2000

New experimental information for the elastic and inelastic scattering of ≈ 4 - 10 MeV neutrons from elemental
antimony is presented. The differential measurements are made at ≈ 40 or more scattering angles and at
incident neutron-energy intervals of ≈ 0.5 MeV. The present experimental
results, those previously reported from this laboratory and as found in
the literature are comprehensively interpreted using spherical
optical-statistical and dispersive-optical models. Direct vibrational
processes via core-excitation, isospin and shell effects are discussed.
Antimony models for applications are proposed and compared with “global”
“regional” and “specific” models reported in the literature.

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron dσ/dΩ_{el} and dσ/dΩ_{inel} for
4.5-10 MeV neutrons incident on elemental antimony. Comprehensive model
interpretations including: - spherical optical-statistical, dispersive
and direct-reaction models. Provision of a " general regional" model for applied purposes.

**ANL/NDM-150** | Abstract only (49.2 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (661 KB)

**Neutrons and Antimony : Neutronic Evaluations of ^{121}Sb and ^{123}Sb**

*Alan B. Smith and Andreas Fessler*

July 2000

The new experimental results and recent extensive model development discussed in the companion report ANL/NDM-149 [Smi00], the new resonance parameterization of ref. [Mug99] and experimental results and models available in the literature, are used to construct neutronic evaluations for 121Sb and 123Sb in the ENDF/B-6 formats. These are comprehensive evaluations extending from thermal energies to 30 MeV, and include all reactions and processes commonly used in applied neutronic calculations. Comparisons are made with ENDF/B-6 MAT 5125 and 5131 files [ENDF].

KEYWORDS:

Comprehensive ENDF/B-6 formatted neutronic evaluations of

^{121}Sb and

^{123}Sb.

**ANL/NDM-151** | Abstract only (8 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (7.95 MB)

**Fast-Neutrons Incident on Holmium**

*Alan B. Smith*

December 2000

Differential neutron-scattering cross sections of elemental holmium
(i.e., ^{165}Ho) are measured at forty or more scattering
angles, at ≈ 0.5 MeV incident-energy intervals,
from ≈ 4.5 - 10.0 MeV. These new results are
combined with neutron total and scattering cross sections previously
reported in the literature to obtain as comprehensive an experimental
data base as possible. This data is interpreted in the context of
spherical-optical, coupled-channels and dispersive models, with
particular attention to the collective excitation of the K = 7/2^{-} ground-state rotational band of ^{165}Ho. The effect of the
collective properties on the model potentials is discussed. Comparisons
are made with previous models reported in the literature and with the
relevant portions of the ENDF/B-6 evaluated nuclear data file.
Generally, the latter evaluation is supported by the present work.
Suggestions for future charged-particle and neutron studies of holmium
are made.

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron dσ/dΩ_{el} for Ho, 4.5-10 MeV. Extensive optical and coupled-channels model
interpretations.

**ANL/NDM-152** | Abstract only (36 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (2.8 MB)

**Technical Note: - Dispersion Contributions to Neutron Reactions**

*R.D. Lawson and A.B. Smith*

October 2001

An approach used to calculate the surface- and volume-imaginary
potential strengths is presented. It is shown that surface dispersive
effects in neutron-induced reactions at lower energies (e.g., < 30 MeV)
have a substantive impact on the process. The volume contribution due to
dispersive effects is also calculated.

KEYWORDS:

Simple formulation of dispersion effects in neutron reactions.

**ANL/NDM-153** | Abstract only (48 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (7.59 MB)

**Fast-Neutrons Incident on Hafnium**

*Alan B. Smith*

June 2001

Total neutron cross sections of elemental Hf were measured from ≈ 0.75 - 4.5 MeV, in steps of ≈ 40 keV and with few-keV resolution.
Differential elastic scattering cross sections of elemental Hf were
measured from ≈ 4.5 - 10.0 MeV , in ≈ 0.5 MeV steps and at 40 scattering angles
between ≈17° and 160°.
Some additional elastic- and inelastic-scattering results were obtained
at incident energies of less than 1.5 MeV. These new data
were combined with that found in the literature to obtain as
comprehensive an experimental database as possible. It was interpreted
in terms spherical-optical-statistical coupled-channels and
dispersive-couple-channels models. The physical characteristics of the
resulting potentials are discussed. The potentials are a vehicle for
extrapolation, evaluation, interpolation and physical calculation for
both basic and applied purposes. Comparisons are made with ENDF/ B-6
(MAT 7200).

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron dσ/dΩ and σ_{t} for elemental Hafnium.
0.3-1.5 MeV and 4.5-10 Mev. Optical and coupled-channels model
interpretation.

**ANL/NDM-154** | Abstract only (50 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (0.99 MB)

**An Approach for Dealing with Large Errors**

*Donald L. Smith, Dimitri G. Naberejnev and Laura A. Van Wormer*

September 2001

Numerical functions or equivalent algorithms are commonly used to derive
estimates for physical quantities that can be expressed in terms of more
fundamental physical parameters. It is shown that in situations where
large uncertainties (errors) are involved in these parameters, or where
error amplification occurs through severe non-linearity of the
functions, conventional deterministic techniques for calculating the
derived quantities and estimating their errors can lead to erroneous
results. Instead, it is necessary to resort to a probabilistic approach
and thereby obtain estimates for mean values and variances of the
derived quantities through Monte Carlo simulation in order to preserve
the essential information without distortion. The correct choice for a
probability distribution is suggested by the inherent nature of the
random variable in question. Examples are given from the analysis of
radioactivity decay, the shielding of penetrating radiation, and the
derivation of nuclear reaction rates that are used in astrophysical
calculations to model nucleosynthesis of the elements in stellar
explosions. Subsequent analyses that use these derived quantities must
also be carried out in a probabilistic manner to insure that the
obtained results will reflect the underlying information properly.

KEYWORDS:

DATA ANALYSIS. Errors. Uncertainty. Probability. Non-linearity.
Radioactivity. Shielding, Astrophysics.

**ANL/NDM-155** | Abstract only (39.2 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (2.06 MB)

**Fast-Neutron Scattering from Elemental Rhenium**

*Alan B. Smith*

July 2003

Results of measurements of neutron scattering from elemental rhenium
over the incident-energy regions 0.1-1.5 MeV, and 4.5-10.0 MeV are
presented. The first of these supplements previously-reported work at
this Laboratory, and the second consists of information in a new energy
range. These experimental results are interpreted in terms of
optical-statistical and coupled-channels models, including consideration
of dispersive effects, and of scalar and vector potentials. Some basic
and applied physical implications of these considerations are discussed.
Comparisons are made with other regional and/or global models, and with
evaluated nuclear-data files used in applications.

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron scattering, 0.3-1.5 MeV and 4.5-10 Mev.
Optical-statistical and coupled-channels model analysis of experimental
results. Basic and applied physical comments.

**ANL/NDM-156** | Abstract only (56.7 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (80.3 KB)

**A Demonstration of the Lognormal Distribution**

*Donald L. Smith*

July 2003

Although its applicability is not universal, the lognormal distribution
is frequently used to represent physical parameters that are inherently
positive and are not well known, i.e., that have large errors. In
particular, arguments drawn from Bayesian statistics suggest that the
lognormal function is the optimal choice of a probability distribution
for those cases where the only knowledge possessed about a particular
parameter is an estimate of its mean value and associated error. In this
report it is demonstrated by a simulation exercise that the lognormal
function represents very well the outcomes of repeated measurements that
are subjected to a variety of multiplicative disturbances that, by their
very nature, preclude the observation of negative values. In the present
study, a simplified model of measurement is defined and it is then
subjected to numerical analysis using the Monte Carlo method. There is
no attempt to prove rigorously that the lognormal distribution results
as the unique consequence of assumptions about the defined model, nor
are other more complex models of measurement investigated. In any event,
it is not possible to produce a proof by the use of anecdotal
information, e.g., by analyzing the results of repeated Monte Carlo
trials. Nevertheless, the simulation study described here does provide
strong evidence that for many practical situations the lognormal
distribution can be used to represent the probable outcome of
measurements of positive quantities.

KEYWORDS:

SIMULATION. Monte-Carlo. Probability. Uncertainty. Errors. Lognormal
distribution. Experimental perturbations. Experimental modeling.

**ANL/NDM-157** | Complete PDF file (1.8
MB)

**Fast-Neutrons Incident on Gadolinium**

*Alan B. Smith*

July 2004

Results of measurements of neutron scattering from elemental gadolinium
over the incident energy regions of 0.3-1.5 MeV and 4.5-10.0 MeV are
presented. These results are interpreted in terms of optical-statistical
and coupled-channels models, including consideration of dispersion
effects and of scalar and vector potentials. Some basic and applied
physical implications of these considerations are noted. Comparisons are
made with other regional models, and with ENDF/B-VI evaluated
nuclear-data files used in applications.

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron scattering from Gd at 0.3-1.5 MeV and 4.5-10 MeV.
Optical-statistical and coupled-channels model analysis of experimental
results. Basic and applied physical comments.

**ANL/NDM-158** | Abstract only (17.6 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (2.48 MB)

**A Survey of Experimental and Evaluated Fast Neutron Helium Production Cross Section Data for Fusion Energy Applications**

*Donald L. Smith*

May 2004

It is well established that the high fluences of fast neutrons likely to
be encountered in the environments of fusion reactors or fusion
materials test facilities will generate substantial quantities of helium
(both 4He and 3He isotopes), and that the presence of this gas in bulk
material can produce serious damage in engineering structures due to
swelling. The present study was undertaken to survey the current status
(as of early 2004) of the available fast neutron cross section
information for helium production in several major structural elements
of interest for the development of fusion energy systems. The scope of
this study encompasses both compiled experimental cross section data and
evaluated cross sections available from major nuclear data libraries
used in the analysis of fusion systems. The main conclusion from this
work is that the contemporary knowledge of those individual neutron
reaction cross sections important for helium production is, in general,
very inadequate for the purpose of producing reliable designs for fusion
reactors (e.g., ITER) and materials irradiation test facilities (e.g.,
IFMIF). Since the number of distinct neutron reactions that must be
considered is large, and the capabilities (both experimental and
theoretical) of the nuclear physics community to adequately determine
the cross sections for specific reactions is limited for various
reasons, it is recommended, as a consequence of the present
investigation, that an engineering approach be undertaken to provide the
data needed for system design purposes. The suggested technical approach
would involve irradiating small specimens of candidate materials in high
fluence neutron fields whose spectra resemble as closely as possible
those to be encountered in real fusion facilities, and that direct integrated yield measurements then be made of helium production in these
samples, inclusive of all the contributing neutron reaction channels.

KEYWORDS:

SURVEY. Nuclear data, neutron cross sections, helium production, fusion
technology.

**ANL/NDM-159** | Abstract only (15.5 KB PDF file) | Complete PDF file (1.51 MB)

**Covariance Matrices for Nuclear Cross-Sections Derived from Nuclear Model Calculations **

*Donald L. Smith*

January 2005

The growing need for covariance information to accompany the evaluated
cross section data libraries utilized in contemporary nuclear
applications is spurring the development of new methods to provide this
information. Many of the current general purpose libraries of evaluated
nuclear data used in applications are derived either almost entirely
from nuclear model calculations or from nuclear model calculations
benchmarked by available experimental data. Consequently, a consistent
method for generating covariance information under these circumstances
is required. This report discusses a new approach to producing
covariance matrices for cross sections calculated using nuclear models.
The present method involves establishing uncertainty information for the
underlying parameters of nuclear models used in the calculations and
then propagating these uncertainties through to the derived cross
sections and related nuclear quantities by means of a Monte Carlo
technique rather than the more conventional matrix error propagation
approach used in some alternative methods. The formalism to be used in
such analyses is discussed in this report along with various issues and
caveats that need to be considered in order to proceed with a practical
implementation of the methodology.

KEYWORDS:

SURVEY. Nuclear data, neutron cross sections, helium production, fusion
technology. METHODS. Nuclear cross sections, nuclear models, errors,
covariances, Monte Carlo.

**ANL/NDM-160** | Complete PDF file (2.7 MB)

**Fast-Neutrons Incident on Rotors: -Tantalum**

*Alan B. Smith*

April 2005

Mono-energetic neutrons are scattered from elemental tantalum over
two-incident-neutron energy ranges. The first set of data is distributed
over E ~ 0.3 - 1.5 MeV, including both elastic and inelastic processes.
These results supplement those reported by the author and co-workers
some time ago. The second set of data consists of detailed measurements
over the energy range E ~ 4.5 -10.0 MeV. The present work is augmented
with neutron scattering and totaI-cross-section data 'from the
literature to form a composite experimental database. The latter :is
interpreted in the context ,of optical-statistical and coupled-channels
models, including consideration of collective deformations, dispersive
effects, and other physical properties. The results are compared with
those of similar neutron interactions in this region of collective
deformations. A "regional" model is proposed for the interpretation of
such neutron interactions. The model and the experimental results are
compared with relevant values given in ENDF/B-VI. Future work is
suggested.

KEYWORDS:

Measured neutron scattering 0.3 -10.0 MeV. Optical-statistical and
coupled-channels model analysis of experimental results. Basic and
applied physical comments. Regional model.

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